The Long Island Rail Road established the Medford Station in 1843 in a flat wilderness in the Long Island Central Pine Barrens. The station connected to the Patchogue Stage Road between Patchogue and Port Jefferson, and a post office was established.
In 1850 the LIRR auctioned the land around the station. The O.L. Schwenke Land & Investment Co. bought 4 square miles (10 km2) and then subdivided the land into 25-by-100-foot (7.6 by 30.5 m) lots which sold for $10 to $75. The land remained poor for farming. According to legend, in a marketing attempt a mock factory with a phony roof was built near the tracks, and when a train neared, tar paper was burned to give the impression that a booming industry existed in the community.
In 1907 the LIRR established the Medford Prosperity Farm (officially called Experimental Station #2) on 80 acres (320,000 m2) to show that crops could be raised in the Pine Barrens. Theodore Roosevelt visited the station in August 1910. As the car drove across a trail between Medford and Wading River, it got stuck in the mud and Roosevelt was said to take a "flying leap" to get out.
Growth and development
By the mid-to-late-20th century, developers were building new neighborhoods within Medford. Eagle Estates was built along Horse Block Road east of NY 112 in 1963, although it was planned as far back as the 1930s. The development included a King Kullen shopping center on Horse Block Road west of Eagle Avenue, and a youth baseball and athletic field east of Sipp Avenue between Wave and Race avenues. The Long Island Expressway was built through Medford in 1970, with interchanges at NY 112 and Horse Block Road, the latter of which is close to an older interchange with Horse Block Road and Long Island Avenue, and was not completed until 1999. The Pines was established in the 1970s east of Buffalo Avenue, south of Jamaica Avenue, north of Woodside Avenue and far west of Patchogue-Yaphank Road.
A segment of Peconic Avenue east of Buffalo Avenue has been lined with automotive junk yards since the mid-20th century. Two long-standing auto wreckers have been Medford Auto Wreckers and Gershow Recycling.
Medford is located at (40.817733, −72.986125).
Medford is crossed by several busy roadways, including Horseblock Road (Suffolk CR 16), NY 112, Patchogue-Yaphank Road/Sills Road (Suffolk CR 101) and the Long Island Expressway.
Public transportation in Medford has been provided by the Long Island Rail Road since the town was created. Suffolk County Transit provides bus service.
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